Great Falls/S. U. M. Power Canal System, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ
Photo Caption Pages
Find maps of Paterson, NJ
Documentation compiled after 1968.
Survey number HAER NJ-2
Unprocessed field note material exists for this structure (FN-1).
Building/structure dates: 1794 initial construction
Building/structure dates: 1846 subsequent work
National Register Number: 70000391
Significance: Begun by the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufacturers under the supervision of Pierre L'Enfant, the Canal System was first completed in 1794. Later alterations and improvements were carried out in various phases between about 1800 and 1846. The canal system harnessed the power of one of the largest falls on the east coast, that of the Passaic River, and eventually provided power to over one hundred buildings. Several eminent Americans, including Alexander Hamilton and Pierre L'Enfant, were involved in the SUM, and it reflects their interest in furthering America's economic independence, and in fostering technology and industry.
Historic American Engineering Record (Library of Congress)
1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING DROP FROM MIDDLE TO LOWER RACEWAY.
2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING TAIL END OF LOWER RACEWAY, WHERE IT EMPTIES BACK INTO PASSAIC RIVER.
3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING UPPER AND MIDDLE RACEWAYS, WITH ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS IN FOREGROUND.
4. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING MIDDLE RACEWAY, WITH DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO.: MILL #2.
5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING MIDDLE RACEWAY.
6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST SHOWING MIDDLE RACEWAY.
7. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING MIDDLE RACEWAY AT REAR OF ESSEX MILL.
8. DROP FROM MIDDLE TO LOWER RACEWAY BEHIND ESSEX MILL.
9. DROP FROM MIDDLE TO LOWER RACEWAY SHOWING ESSEX MILL AT LEFT.
10. DROP FROM UPPER TO MIDDLE RACEWAY AT IVANHOE MILL WHEELHOUSE.
11. LOWER RACEWAY ALONG VAN HOUTEN STREET LOOKING WEST.
12. LOWER RACEWAY ALONG VAN HOUTEN STREET LOOKING WEST ALONGSIDE HARMONY AND PHOENIX MILLS.
13. OLD FENCE POST NEXT TO LOWER RACEWAY ALONG VAN HOUTEN STREET LOOKING EAST.
14. LOWER RACEWAY ALONG VAN HOUTEN STREET LOOKING EAST.
15. Middle raceway with the Ivanhoe Mill Wheelhouse and Grant Locomotive Works in the right, and showing the bridge carrying Spruce Street over the middle raceway.
16. View of the iron penstock, recorded on a 1915 Sanborn Map, from the south, with ruins of the Ivanhoe Wheelhouse.
17. View of the upper raceway from the east, looking towards the S.U.M. Gatehouse and entrance to the power canal system.
18. View of the upper raceway from south of the Rogers Locomotive Works Wheelhouse penstock foundation.
19. View from the end of the upper raceway showing the gate structures of the Dolphin Mill.
20. View of the Spruce Street Bridge over the upper raceway tailrace.
21. Original S.U.M. Gatehouse with hydroelectric generating plant in the background. View is from the southwest.
22. View of the 1840 'Island Dam' on the Passaic River.
23. Remains of the iron penstock, located between the upper raceway and the upper raceway tailrace, looking towards the Rogers Locomotive Works Fitting Shop.
24. View of the Industry Mill tailrace from the south, with the Industry Mill on the left.
25. View of the top of the dam separating the the middle and lower raceways.
26. View of the dam between the middle and lower raceways from the upstream side, with the Waverly Mill and other buildings of the Allied Textile Printers complex in the background.
27. Detail of the mechanism for raising and lowering the level of the spillway between the middle and lower raceways.
28. View of the spillway from the upper to the middle raceway.
29. View of the remains of one of the gates to the Hamilton Mill headrace from the southwest.
30. View to the south showing the east wall of the middle raceway.
31. View of gate structures on the raceway system.
32. Detail of gate structures on the raceway system.
33. Detail of gate structures with trash racks.
34. View of the falls from the middle to the lower raceway, with the acrh of the Essex Mill tailrace visible on the left. This portion of the Essex Mill dates from 1856.
35. View of the falls from the middle to the lower raceway with the 1856 addition to the Essex Mill visible on the left, and the Colt Gun Mill on the right.
36. View of the Passaic River with the Allied Textile Printers complex in the background.
37. Spillway from the upper to the middle raceway, with the Ivanhoe Mill Wheelhouse on the right
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